Competitividad, legado económico e impacto en el turismo: Copa del Mundo/Competitiveness, economic legacy and tourism impacts: World Cup

Thays Cristina Domareski Ruiz, Adriana Fumi Chim Miki, Francisco Antonio Dos Anjos



Los impactos del legado turístico son un importante motivo para los países acoger un mega evento. Estos eventos generan legados a corto, mediano y largo plazo en la imagen de destino, así como a nivel económico y sociocultural. El objetivo del artículo fue mostrar la evolución a corto plazo de los indicadores de legado económico de mega eventos deportivos considerando dos años antes y dos años después de cada evento. A través de un análisis exploratorio se verificó el nivel de empleo turístico, la inversión total y el PIB turístico de los países que acogieron las últimas tres Copas Mundiales de la FIFA. Además, se analizó las fortalezas competitivas del país en el año en que ocurrió el mega evento en base a los pilares del Índice de Competitividad Turística y de Viaje (TTCI). Este análisis explicativo y descriptivo está basado en datos secundarios. La revisión de la literatura señala la infraestructura como el pilar competitivo central para un país recibir un mega evento deportivo. Sin embargo, los resultados no indicaron este punto como una fortaleza en los últimos países elegidos. Además, el legado económico aumentó después del mega evento deportivo, pero no en todos los hosts analizados. Por lo tanto, la asunción de los efectos positivos generados por los mega eventos deportivos no se consolida y así se recomienda investigaciones futuras bajo la perspectiva del legado para establecer indicadores y análisis sobre el impacto en el país anfitrión generado por un mega evento.

Palabras clave

Mega eventos deportivos; Competitividad turística; Legado económico; Impacto del turismo


Auld, T., and Mcarthur, S. (2003). “Does event-driven tourism provide economic benefits? A case study from the Manawatu region of New Zealand”. Tourism Economics, 9(2), 191-201.

Baade, R. A., and Matheson, V. (2002). “Bidding for the Olympics: Fool’s gold”. Transatlantic sport: The comparative economics of North American and European sports, pp. 127.

Barclay, J. (2009). “Predicting the costs and benefits of mega-sporting events: Misjudgment of Olympic proportions?”. Institute of Economic Affairs, 29(2), 62–66.

Caiazza, R., and Audretsch, D. (2015). “Can a sport mega-event support hosting city's economic, socio-cultural and political development?”. Tourism Management Perspectives, 14, 1-2.

Cohen, E. (1972). “Toward a Sociology of International Tourism”. Social Research, 39(1), 164.

Cornelissen, S. (2004). “It's Africa's turn! The narratives and legitimations surrounding the Moroccan and South African bids for the 2006 and 2010 FIFA finals”. Third World Quarterly, 25(7), 1293-1309.

Crompton, J. L., and McKay, S. L. (1994). “Measuring the Economic Impact of Festivals and Events: some myths, misapplications and ethical dilemmas”. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(1), 33-43.

Crompton, J. L. (1995). “Economic Impact of Sports Facilities and Events: eleven sources of misapplication”. Journal of Sport Management, 9, 14-35.

Crouch, G. I., and Ritchie, J. R. (1997). “Convention site selection research: A review, conceptual model, and propositional framework”. Journal of Convention & Exhibition Management, 1(1), 49-69.

Crouch, G. I., and Louviere, J. J. (2004). “The determinants of convention site selection: A logistic choice model from experimental data”. Journal of Travel Research, 43(2), 118-130.

Delamere, T. A., Wankel, L. M., and Hinch, T. D. (2001). “Development of a scale to measure resident attitudes toward the social impacts of community festivals, Part I: Item generation and purification of the measure”. Event Management, 7(1), 11-24.

Delpy, L., and Ming, Li. (1998). “The Art and Science of Conducting Economic Impact Studies”. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 4(3), 230-254.

Dwyer, L., and Forsyth, P. (1997). “Impacts and Benefits of MICE Tourism: a framework for analysis”. Tourism Economics, 3(1), 21-38.

Dwyer, L., and Kim, C. (2003). “Destination competitiveness: determinants and indicators”. Current issues in tourism, 6(5), 369-414.

Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Mistilis, N., and Mules, T. (2000). A framework for assessing “tangible” and “intangible” impacts of events and conventions. Event management, 6(3), 175-189.

Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., and Spurr, R. (2006). “Assessing the economic impacts of events: A computable general equilibrium approach”. Journal of Travel Research, 45, 59–66.

Fourie, J., and Santana-Gallego, M. (2011). “The impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals”. Tourism Management, 32(6), 1364-1370.

Funk, D. C., and Bruun, T. J. (2007). “The role of socio-psychological and culture-education motives in marketing international sport tourism: A cross-cultural perspective”. Tourism management, 28(3), 806-819.

Getz, D. (1987). “Events Tourism: Evaluating the Impacts”, in: J.R.B. Ritchie and C.R. Goeldner (eds) Travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research- a Handbook for Managers and Researchers, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 27-38.

Getz, D. (1989). “Special events: Defining the product”. Tourism Management, 10(2), 125-137.

Getz, D. (2008). “Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research”. Tourism management, 29(3), 403-428.

Giampiccoli, A., Lee, S. S., and Nauright, J. (2015). “Destination South Africa: comparing global sports mega-events and recurring localised sports events in South Africa for tourism and economic development”. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(3), 229-248.

Haferburg, C. (2011). “South Africa under FIFA’s reign: The World Cup’s contribution to urban development”. Development Southern Africa, 28(3), 333–348.

Hall, C. M. (2004). “The definition and analysis of hallmark tourist events”. GeoJournal, 19(3), 263–268.

Hall, C. M. (2006). “Urban entrepreneurship, corporate interests and sports mega-events: the thin policies of competitiveness within the hard outcomes of neoliberalism”, in: Horne, J; Manzenreiter, W. (Ed.). Sports Mega-Events: social scientific analyses of a global phenomenon. (Special Issue: The Sociological Review Monograph Series), 54(s2), pp. 59-70.

Hanrahan, J., and Maguire, K. (2016). “Local authority planning provision for event management in Ireland: A socio-cultural perspective”. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 17(2), 129-158.

Horne, J. (2007). “The four ‘Knowns’ of sports mega-events”. Leisure Studies, 26(1), 81–96.

Horne, J., and Manzenreiter, W. (2006). “An introduction to the sociology of sports megaevents”, in: Horne, J; Manzenreiter, W. (Ed.). Sports Mega-Events: Social Scientific Analyses of a Global Phenomenon. (Special Issue: The Sociological Review Monograph Series), 54(s2), pp. 1-24.

Kang, Y. S., and Perdue, R. (1994). “Long-term impact of a mega-event on international tourism to the host country: a conceptual model and the case of the 1988 Seoul Olympics”. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 6(3-4), 205-225.

Kasimati, E. (2003). “Economic aspects and the Summer Olympics: a review of related research”. International journal of tourism research, 5(6), 433-444.

Kim, H., Gursoy, D., and Lee, S. (2006). “The impact of the 2002 World Cup on south Korea: comparisons of pre- and post-games”. Tourism Management, 27, 86–96.

Kim, S. S., Yoon, S., and Kim, Y. (2011). “Competitive positioning among international convention cities in the East Asian region”. In Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 12(2), 86-105. Taylor & Francis Group.

Li, S., and McCabe, S. (2013). “Measuring the Socio‐Economic Legacies of Mega‐events: Concepts, Propositions and Indicators”. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(4), 388-402.

Linda, S. L. L. (2009). “A competitiveness analysis of the convention tourism of China’s Macao Special Administrative Region’”. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 60, 600-605.

Mair, J., and Whitford, M. (2013). “An exploration of events research: Event topics, themes and emerging trends”. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 4(1), 6-30.

Monge, F., and Brandimarte, P. (2011). “Mice tourism in piedmont: economic perspective and quantitative analysis of customer satisfaction”. Tourismos: an international multidisciplinary journal of tourism, 6(1), 213-220.

Mules, T. (1999). “Estimating the Economic Impact of an Event on a Local Government Area, Region, State or Territory”, in: Valuing Tourism: methods and techniques. Bureau of Tourism research Occasional, 28, Canberra.

O’Neill, J. (2001). Building better global economic BRICs. Global Economics, 66. Available at:

Oppermann, M. (1996). “Convention cities: Images and changing fortunes”. Journal of tourism studies, 7(1), 10.

Pacaud, L., Vollet, D., and Angeon, V. (2007). “Impact of tourism infrastructure on regional development: the implantation of a Center Parcs resort in northern France”. Tourism Economics, 13(3), 389-406.

Pinson, J. (2016). “Heritage sporting events: theoretical development and configurations”. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 21(2), 133-152.

Preuss, H. (2007). “The conceptualisation and measurement of mega sport event legacies”. Journal of sport & tourism, 12(3-4), 207-228.

Qu, H., Li, L., and Chu, G. K. T. (2000). “The comparative analysis of Hong Kong as an international conference destination in Southeast Asia”. Tourism Management, 21(6), 643-648.

Ritchie, J. R. B., and Crouch, G. I. (1997). “Roles and contributions to destination competitiveness”, in 47 Congress of the Association International d'Experts Scientifiques du Tourisme.

Roche, M. (2000). “Mega-events and modernity”. London: Routledge, pp. 1-30.

Schimmel, K. S. (2006). “Deep Play: sports mega-events and urban social conditions in the USA”, in: Horne, J. and Manzenreiter, W. (Ed.) Sports Mega-Events: Social Scientific Analyses of a Global Phenomenon. (Special Issue: The Sociological Review Monograph Series), 54(s2), pp. 160-174.

Siegfried, J., and Zimbalist, A. (2000). “The economics of sports facilities and their communities”. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 95–114.

Solberg, H. A., and Preuss, H. (2007). “Major sport events and long-term tourism impacts”. Journal of sport Management, 21(2), 213-234.

Tanford, S., Montgomery, R., and Nelson, K. B. (2012). “Factors that influence attendance, satisfaction, and loyalty for conventions”. In Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 13(4), 290-318.

Treasury, N. S. W. (1997). The economic impact of the Sydney Olympic games. The Centre for Regional Economic Analysis University of Tasmania. (Office of Financial Management Research and Information Paper.)

Wan, Y. K. P. (2011). “Assessing the strengths and weaknesses of Macao as an attractive meeting and convention destination: Perspectives of key informants”. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 12(2), 129-151.

WEF – World Economic Forum (2007). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007. Available in: <>. Acess in: 12 de mar de 2016.

WEF – World Economic Forum. (2015). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015. Available in: <>. Acess in: 12 de mar de 2016.

Wong, I. A. (2011). Using destination attributes to promote event travel: The case of Macau. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 12(4), 241-252.


Copyright (c) 2019 Thays Cristina Domareski Ruiz, Adriana Fumi Chim Miki, Francisco Antonio Dos Anjos

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.