Configuración de destinos turísticos y uso del suelo. Revisión de impulsores e implicaciones

Zulma Hasbleidy Viancha Sanchez

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INTURI2021.21.3

Resumen

La importancia socio económica del turismo y las diversas transformaciones que genera, han aumentado el interés por estudiar sus impactos. Este artículo contribuye a la discusión sobre los procesos de transformación generados por la decisión de cambiar, gestionar, planear el uso del suelo para configurar destinos turísticos. A través de la revisión de 162 artículos escritos desde el año 2000 al 2020, se identificaron y clasificaron impulsores e implicaciones de esta decisión. Encontrando que la mayoría de las investigaciones se desarrollaron en destinos de costa, áreas rurales y áreas protegidas, a escalas locales, con estudios de caso, en países como China, España, México y Turquía, entre otros. El principal impulsor del turismo fue la presencia y disponibilidad de recursos en el destino, que, a través de la formulación de planes y programas y de cambios en la regulación, por parte del gobierno, se convierten en atractivos que favorecen las condiciones para el desarrollo del turismo. La mayoría de los artículos revisados indicaron implicaciones negativas, especialmente asociadas con la degradación de los ecosistemas. Lo anterior, muestra la necesidad de integrar diversos aspectos políticos, económicos, ecológicos,sociales y culturales, en la decisión de adaptar el uso del suelo al desarrollo del turismo.

Palabras clave

turismo; uso del suelo; cambio de uso del suelo; planeación del suelo.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INTURI2021.21.3





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